Enmity into Amity

TitleEnmity into Amity
Publication TypeBook
Subtitle / Series TitleHow Peace Breaks Out
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsKupchan, CA
VolumeInternational Policy Analysis
Number of Pages14 pages
PublisherFriedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES)
CityBonn / Berlin

SummaryA theory of stable peace should draw on all three main intellectual traditions of international relations theory: realism, liberalism and constructivism. Theorizing about the sources of peace not only yields intellectual insights, but also provides valuable guidance to policymakers about how to transform interstate enmity into amity.Although each case of rapprochement unfolds along a unique path, they all follow the same basic sequence: unilateral accommodation sets the stage for reciprocal restraint, which then provides a foundation for societal integration and, ultimately, the generation of new narratives that transform oppositional identities into a shared identity.As for the causes of peace, rapprochement emerges as a product of engagement, not coercion: peace breaks out when adversaries settle their differences, not when one side forces the other into submission. Commercial integration is much less important than commonly presumed; diplomacy, not economic interdependence, is the currency of peace. Managing the domestic politics of rapprochement is essential to securing reconciliation. Nonetheless, especially during the initial phases of rapprochement between antagonistic states, regime type is not a determinant of outcomes; democracies and autocracies alike can make for reliable partners in peace.Third parties – outside powers or international organizations – can play an important role in facilitating rapprochement. However, the adversaries themselves must ultimately commit to engage in direct negotiations and settle the disputes that divide them.

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